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clinmed/2000080008v1 (August 22, 2000)
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The Fragile Male

Sebastian Kraemer

The human male is on most measures, more vulnerable than the female. Part of the explanation is the biological fragility of the male fetus, which is little understood, and not widely known. A typical attitude to boys is that they are, or must be made, more resilient than girls. This adds ‘social insult to biological injury’. Culture, and class, make a difference to the health and survival of boys. The data presented here have implications for the clinical management of male patients as well as for the upbringing of boys.





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